In the Iron Age the Phoenician merchants plied their martime trade on the Mediterranean and were the first mariners to circumnavigate Africa. It is divisible into two branches, their trade with their own colonists, and that with the natives of the various countries to which they penetrated in their voyages. The Resource The Phoenicians: Mysterious Sea People (Ancient Civilizations) The Phoenicians: Mysterious Sea People (Ancient Civilizations) [vii] Joseph, Frank Survivors of Atlantis (Rochester, VT: Bear & Co, 2004), pp. He admitted that the similarity between Mycenaean and Philistine pottery did not begin until a later date—the middle of the 12th century BC—and not at the beginning of that century when the Sea Peoples migration took place. 103-105. The Phoenicians made numerous contributions to human civilization, the most notable of which being the Phoenician alphabet, which is the ancestor of many other alphabets that are used today. Phoenician, one of a people of ancient Phoenicia. [xxxii] In addition, by going through the Hittite land and Canaan, the Sea Peoples would bring a force numbering hundreds of thousands to confront the wheat-rich Egyptians—rather than the handful of warriors who had failed on the first attempt. depicts Canaanite dignitaries visiting the pharaoh. Although the Phoenician people retained a great deal of independence under this arrangement, they were subjected to heavy demands for tribute which was theoretically buying Egyptian protection. Studies of their teeth indicate they ate a lot sand in their food and their teeth wore down quickly.”. 367-368. Phoenician mask Canaanites buried 4,000 years ago were folded up with their arms and legs crossed and placed in burial pots, sometimes wearing a necklace made with gold, rock crystal and carnelian beads. For reasons not yet fully understood, the massive disruptions caused elsewhere in the Levant appear to have had a minimal effect upon the Phoenician coastal centers. So while their contemporaries were destroyed, the ancient Phoenicians minted new currency, prepared their fleets, and began growing the greatest trade network the Mediterranean had ever seen. The Phoenicians were an ancient people who lived in what is now Lebanon (and some surrounding areas). Nebuchadnezzar is said to have destroyed Ashkelon to send a warning to cities in the region of what would await them if they sided with the Egyptians. As previously mentioned, some theories comment upon but do not look into the curious fact that Phoenician cities seem to have been unaffected by the destruction which went on around them at this time. 28-29. 24-25. Ugarit was an important 14th century B.C. They had, by now, desolated much of the Late Bronze Age civilizations and were ready to make a move on Egypt. From the 9th to 6th centuries B.C. Modern-day Lebanese look upon their Phoenician heritage with pride. However, since their writings were made on papyrus, little remains except what has been written about them by Greek and Egyptian scholars. 4, pp. Looked outwards towards the sea to expand. The Hittite blockage had been removed. 1176 BC — King Ramses III of Egypt stopped the Sea Peoples attacks by land and by sea, allowing them to keep the land they had taken. 20-31. [xv] Singer, Itamar “New Evidence on the End of the Hittite Empire” The Sea Peoples and Their World: A Reassessment (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Museum, 2000), pp. [Source: Department of Ancient Near Eastern Art. Operation Odysseus Playlist link- https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLDb22nlVXGgd2rdNu1C44t-hoYXA9bL2MSupport new videos from Epimetheus on Patreon! 1208 BC — King Merneptah of Egypt turned back an incursion by the Sea Peoples and Libyans at the Nile Delta. They had master craftsmen and a clear idea of what they wanted to build---big fortified cities. 60-61. They were so valued as a trading partner that no one attempted to overtake them until three of the greatest empires ever known came into power. In 1208 BC they sailed to Egypt in small numbers, estimated at 5000 warriors,[xxvii] and attacked the successor to Ramses: king Merneptah. Who Were the Phoenicians ? Although the vast majority of them descended from Arabs, they prefer to refer themselves as Phoenicians as opposed too Muslims, Christians, Arabs or even Lebanese. The quick-strike raids in the Aegean and across the southern coast of Anatolia seem particularly of this nature, given that delivering settlers into those areas does not seem to have been the prime motivation. (These) lands were united, and they laid their hands upon the land as far as the Circle of the Earth. [xvi] Wachsmann, “To the Sea of the Philistines”, pp. The Mycenaean citadel-cities may or may not have been taken at this time, but the coastal towns were certainly laid waste by these raiders. Carthage was a prominent Phoenician port and trade center established by colonists from Lebanon. [xlii] Wachsmann, “To the Sea of the Philistines”, p.122. [Source: Pierre Grandet, 2014, UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, 2013 escholarship.org <>], “Less than one generation earlier, a group of peoples of the same origin (including the Shakalusha ), had been party to an attempted Libyan invasion of Egypt in year five of Merenptah, and had been dubbed “Peoples of the Sea” in the commemorative inscription of this king’s victory. [xxxvii] Bryce, The Kingdom of the Hittites, pp. Flowing down through Canaan they destroyed the cities they encountered. The great wall that surrounded it when it was at its height was an arc over two kilometers long, with the sea on the other side. Later Peoples of the FertileCrescent: Sea PeoplesSocial Studies for 8th E.G.B. I equipped my frontier in Zahi, prepared before them. Phoenicians). This pushed the Phoenicians backward from the west. The Egyptians considered the Canaanites to be rivals and cursed the Ashkelon kings by writing their names on figurines and smashing them to magically destroy their power. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the copyright owner. Advertisement. As was noted, widespread food shortages in the north had driven up the price of wheat to incredible levels. However recent scholarship has shown rather clearly that these peoples came from a wider area, indicating a wider range of causes for these events. The Phoenician cities were untouched by this devastation that happened around them, which left these people in an advantageous position. 364-365. Find books The now-open Aegean allowed ships belonging to the Sea Peoples to sail through those waters and begin to raid the Hittites all along their Mediterranean coast. [Source: Department of Ancient Near Eastern Art. Those who reached my boundary, their seed is not; their heart and their soul are finished forever and ever. In year eight of Ramesses III, they invaded Amurru, whose territory adjoined Egypt’s, where they took the time to regroup their forces before moving south, allowing the pharaoh to mobilize his forces. This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been authorized by the copyright owner. ), the Biblical era of the Judges, the two peoples most adversely affected by the military and naval power of the Sea Peoples were the Israelites and the Phoenicians (coastal Canaanites). Also after 1500 BC the Egyptian pharaohs sent their armies up the Levantine coast and demanded to be recognized as overlords of the Phoenicians[xxi] as well as the rest of the Levant. Now, it happened through this god, the lord of gods, that I was prepared and armed to [trap] them like wild fowl. With the exception of the defense against the attack from the Libyans, the rest of Ramses III’s long reign was peaceful. There is no such mystery about the origins of the Phoenicians. [xxxviii] Approximately two years later the Kaska captured Hattusas, the capital of the Hittites, and that empire died.[xxxix]. they dominated the Mediterranean Sea by extending a string of colonies throughout the region. [Source: Rick Gore, National Geographic January 2001]. Take a look inside this book on Amazon. 1200–500 B.C.) Other archeologist believe the Philistines were originally a Sea People group. In each case there is a cluster of dates within a narrow band for these events. The Ugarits condensed the Eblaite writing, with its hundreds of symbols, into a concise 30-letter alphabet that was the precursor of the Phoenician alphabet. Of course, this culture is greatly influenced by the Aegean world and continues to reflect that eclectic world we characterize as Canaanite in the Bronze Age.” |*|. When captured, they were often included in the Egyptian elite troops, as the Shardana of Ramesses II’s guard at the battle of Qadesh— a position that they still retained under Ramesses III.” <>, “Around 1200 BCE, these peoples began a large and destructive migration to the south and east of the Aegean. Shelley Wachsmann[iv] added a significant point which was missing from the above explanation, and that was the participation of people from Central Europe and the Black Sea region. Large numbers of them settled in Canaan and gave their own name to the land: primarily the Peleset people who settled a wide swath of land which became known as Palestine. The Sea Peoples, on land, were defeated and scattered but their navy continued towards the eastern Nile delta. Under the destructive force of the Sea Peoples’ attacks, all of the Phoenicians’ powerful adversaries had been destroyed. Sea as Fenkhu, which undoubtedly is a phonetic rendition of what we later call Phoenicians. Their aim now, was to defeat the Egyptian navy and force an entry up the river. Pierre Grandet wrote: “Medinet Habu sources, both textual and iconographic, reduce this campaign to two main battles, addressing the twofold threat the Sea Peoples represented: first, the repelling of an attempted landing by a group of enemy ships, crushed between Egyptian warships coming from the high sea and Ramesses III’s infantry waiting for them on the shore; and second, an inland battle, fought against a migrating group of the same invaders, who possessed chariotry and were accompanied by carriages laden with their women, their children, and all their belongings . The word Philistine has come to mean a hedonistic, uneducated person. In fact, the Phoenicians probably did not consider themselves one single unified group. He furnished my strength and caused my plans to prosper. We have seen how pressures were increasing in and around Anatolia. Language: english. An 11-inch-high silver-and-gold statuette of a god, circa 1900 B.C., was unearthed at Ugarit in present-day Syria. On what he surmised about the Phoenician, Wells told National Geographic: “Apparently they didn’t interbreed much. At a time of severe food shortages, when this need was about to erupt into a truly massive migration of people, the Phoenicians were the ones who could bring some quantity of food. ISBN 10: 1595152369. Among the important finds made at Ashkelon were the oldest arched gateway ever found and a silver-plated bronze calf, a symbol of Baal, reminiscent of the huge golden calf mentioned in Exodus, found in 1990 by Harvard archaeologists. Where did the Phoenicians come from? they had been absorbed into the Israelites. Pages: 48 / 47. The word Phoenician is what the ancient Greeks called the Semitic inhabitants of the eastern Mediterranean coastland. The Phoenicians were great maritime people, known for their mighty ships and a great experience as sea traders, traveling across the Mediterranean Sea and reaching as far north as Britain, Egypt, and Senegal. If you would like to discover more about the Phoenicians than what is covered in this article, the book “Phoenician Secrets” is recommended. “The History of Ancient Egypt: An Overview” Civilizations of the Ancient Near East (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1995), p. 708. The Philistines themselves killed the Hebrew King Saul. [xix] McDonald, William A. and Carol G. Thomas Progress into the Past: The Rediscovery of Mycenaean Civilization (Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1990), p. 420. Send-to-Kindle or Email . Some modern historians theorize that the Egyptians knew the origins of the Sea Peoples based on the way they wrote about them. You can take a look inside the book on Amazon. 1255–66.. New York: Scribner, 1995. They were merchants, traders, and colonizers who probably arrived from the Persian Gulf about 3000 bce. to 604 B.C. It had been taken from the Phoenicians prior to the coming of the Sea Peoples and was being held by the Hittites. The most northern Phoenician city was on the island of Arwad, also known as Arvad and Arados. The Sea Peoples, like the Phoenicians, were excellent navigators---and how they knew the routes west to the rich sources of metals.”, DNA evidence seems to indicate the impact of the Sea People, if they existed, were a cultural and technological group, not a blood group. At Ashkelon (see Below) Canaanite families placed corpses in burial chambers and kept them there until the flesh rotted off, a process that took several months, then they would bury the bones in recesses and corners of the chambers. Sanger told National Geographic, “They came by the boatload . An examination of the Sea Peoples would be remiss if it did not also acknowledge another popular theory: that these people were from the lost city of Atlantis, as identified by Frank Joseph[vii] and others. Sea trade of Phoenicia 1. The Ugarites reduced all symbols with multiple consonant sounds to signs with a single consent sound. During Iron Age I (1200–1000 B.C.E. 8-304. But the net result was that the Sea Peoples were finally stopped in their southward movement. even ventured beyond the Strait of Gibraltar as far as Britain in search of tin. Betancourt noted there was an adequate supply of food at this time in Greece and that the population had grown very large. by Nissim R. Ganor Kotarim International Publishing Ltd., 2009 xviii + 302 pages, English Paper, 6 x 9 inches ISBN: 9789659141524 Then the rise of the Mycenaeans [xix] caused sea trade in the Aegean—and even as far as Cyprus—to fall into the hands of that new power. and mixed with local Canaanites to create the Phoenicians. In time the Greeks and Romans would rise and they—together with the often overlooked Phoenicians—would sow the seeds of Western civilization. The presence of all these cultures and historical periods means the site is rich archaeologically but also difficult and complex to sort through. But why was this particular moment chosen for exploding into action? See the first pages here. Tyre was one of the leading Phoenician cities in 1200 BC, and we are fortunate to have an excellent archaeological study of this site which went all the way down to bedrock. This approach may allow greater conformance with the array of facts discovered about the Sea Peoples and the events of this time. The Phoenician people had been dominant sea traders in the Mediterranean prior to 1500 BC[xvii],[xviii] and in some cases had partnered with others to maintain that position. Sidon and Byblos were the other significant Phoenician cities at this time, but to date insufficient research has been conducted to support or deny the conclusion of no destruction at these sites. This description at Medinet Habu was accompanied by pictures displaying battle scenes in which the Sea Peoples’ boats were shown as having a very peculiar design: The fore-post and aft-post were identical and each had a bird’s head at the top. A few historians, however, think the Phoenicians navigated the entire Atlantic Ocean . Ten centimeters tall and dated to 1600 B.C. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Any other similarities between the Sea Peoples and Phoenicians can also be used as an indicator of cultural mergence. Among the cities they created were these in Morocco: Lixis (modern Larache), Sala (Rabat), Mogador (Essaouira) and Tingis (Tangier); in Spain: Gadir (Cadiz), Malaka (Malaga), Ibisa (Ibiza); in Algeria: Icosia (Algiers); in Tunisia: Utica and Carthage, both now gone; in Sardinia: Karalis (Cagliari); in Sicily: Panormus (Palermo); in Cyprus: Kition (Larnaca). But a problem had to be overcome. and mixed with local Canaanites to create the Phoenicians. By clarifying the “mysteries” surrounding them, we are now able to more fully understand this critical turning point in history. Around 1850 B.C. [xl] Many settled beside the wheat fields and took some of the land for themselves and their families. In the civil war era, Maronite Christians claimed they were they descendants of Phoenicians and the Muslims were not. [xxxviii] Van Soldt, W.H. In this part of Anatolia is where we find unrelieved food shortages and increasing pressure to take some form of necessary action. 10-23. Much of their culture in the Lebanese coast, however, remains undocumented in part due to disturbance of Iron Age sites by later Persian, Hellenistic and Roman cultures. During the second millennium B.C.E., the Canaanites controlled Palestine, Transjordan and Syria—from Ugarit down to the Egyptian border—and they developed a rich culture. They never were very strong or established an empire and in fact were often overrun by the great empires of Mesopotamia, Egypt and Anatolia. Their horses were quivering in their every limb, ready to crush the countries under their feet. 366-367. By around 1100 B.C. Please read our short guide how to send a book to Kindle. Who were the Sea Peoples? ), the last great pharaoh of Egypt, is best known for defeating the Sea Peoples — a combination of several different peoples that some historian gave birth to the Phoenicians. [xii] Rather than disproving the current assertion, this remarkable treatment of Arwad adds to the view that the Phoenicians were accorded a special status by the invading peoples. The growth of Ugarit as a major sea trader[xx] located just north of the Phoenicians exerted additional pressure from that direction. It is divisible into two branches, their trade with their own colonists, and that with the natives of the various countries to which they penetrated in their voyages. Experts differ over exactly how many battles were fought between Ramses and the Sea Peoples, as well as where they were fought. [xiv] Bryce, Trevor The Kingdom of the Hittites (Oxford: Clerendon Press, 1998), pp. From what scholars have been able to ascertain, the Canaanites were a largely urban people that originated in eastern Syria, migrated southward along the Mediterranean lived mostly between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean in what is now Israel. [xxix] Bryce, The Kingdom of the Hittites, p. 364. The Phoenician connection to the Druids has been made many times before, and my research also leads to the Phoenicians being the same as the Druids. [xxxiii] Sandars, Nancy K. The Sea Peoples (London: Thames and Hudson, 1978), p. 133. Philistines, Phoenicians and Sea Peoples. "Hopefully our findings and other continuing research will cast further light on the origins and impact of Phoenician peoples and their culture," said Matisoo-Smith.”, Image Sources: Wikimedia Commons, The Louvre, The British Museum, Bardo Museum. As we have seen, the major losers were a) the city of Ugarit which was totally destroyed and never rebuilt, b) the Hittite empire which was destroyed and left only a residual fragment on the Euphrates River, c) the Mycenaeans who were fatally wounded and would disappear completely within a hundred years, and d) Egypt which had won the battles but lost the Levant—it would waste away and become a shadow of its former self. Phoenicians 1. Confined to a narrow coastal strip with limited agricultural resources, maritime trade was a natural development. Nobody knows who they were or where they came from. As a brief digression from the sea traders’ problems, we note that during the next forty-five years of Ramses’ long reign following this treaty, the Hittites were beset on all sides but held their own. They seem to have stuck mostly to themselves. The next step in probing the mystery of the Sea Peoples is to examine the economic and environmental factors cited by Philip C. Betancourt[xiii] and others as being the primary cause of the mass migration of the Sea Peoples. The historical record on them between 1,000 and 600 B.C. Now, however, some of those people listed by the Egyptians, such as the Lukka, have been identified and their homes in Anatolia are known. Yet the actual Sea Peoples did all these things. [xviii] Bentley, Jerry and Herbert Ziegler Traditions & Encounters (New York: McGraw Hill, 2000), p.51. The Phoenicians: Mysterious Sea People (Ancient Civilizations) The powerful Ramses II of Egypt fought the Hittites, but finally signed a treaty with them in 1258 BC which ceded to the Hittites all the lands those people had taken. At the heart of it all were a mysterious people: the Phoenicians. [xxxv] To deal with this, warriors and ships in the Sea Peoples confederacy poured from Anatolia and the Black Sea into the Aegean, where they ravaged the Mycenaeans in their islands and on the Greek mainland. Cambridge: Lutterworth, 1985. He established a defensive line in Southern Palestine and requisitioned every available ship to secure the mouth of the Nile. On the discovery of a puppy in pot, Paula Wapnish, an animal bone specialist at the University of Alabama, told National Geographic, “We think that somebody killed it and placed it in a pit in the ground.” Team member Brian Hesse added, “The pot has char marks. The Sea Peoples’ first strike, if successful, would have acquired ownership of some part of that food source. Food shortages definitely existed in Anatolia, which the Hittites were able to relieve by importing wheat and other goods from Egypt and Canaan. The Mycenaeans continued to hold the Aegean and attacked the Anatolian people from the seaward side. [vi] Zangger, Eberhard “Who Were the Sea People?” Saudi Aramco World 46:3 (Houston, 1995), pp. They were a slippery people. Instead of being a civilization of pleasure-seeking ignoramuses, archaeologists found that the Philistines were an industrious, innovative Iron Age civilization that grew rich from selling olives and dying cloth, and developed sophisticated metal tools and olive crushing machines. [xxvii] Wood, Michael In Search of the Trojan War (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998), p. 219. It is clear that the city dominated the surrounding land (though the full extent of the kingdom is uncertain).. \^/, “Merchants figure prominently in Ugarit's archives. Sea traders from Phoenicia and Carthage (a Phoenician colony traditionally founded in 814 B.C.) They are the descendants of those Bronze Age Canaanites who, protected by the Lebanon mountains and the sea, did not succumb to the Israelites or the 'Sea Peoples'. DNA evidence seems to indicate the impact of the Sea People, if they existed, were a cultural and technological group, not a blood group. Around 1550 B.C. 9. According to the Guinness Book of Records, the earliest example of alphabetic writing was a clay tablet with 32 cuneiform letters found in Ugarit, Syria and dated to 1450 B.C. The Phoenicians managed to spread their influence because they ventured beyond their homeland both physically and intellectually to explore the world and the riches it had to offer. After that there is no reference to them in the historical record. The island city of Tyre and the city of Sidon were the most powerful states in Phoenicia with Gebal/ Byblos and Baalbek as the most important spiritual/religious centers. B. Mazar, on the other hand (1967: 3-15), believed this encounter to have occurred between the cities of Philistia and Phoenicia. That there was a relationship or partnership of some nature between the Sea Peoples and the Phoenicians is clearly in evidence. Around 1180 B.C., Ramesis III defeated the Sea People in a land and sea battle at the borders of Egypt (ANEP., 341, 813). The ultimate collapse of Egyptian power in the region occurred about 1175 B.C. In 1182 BC Ugarit fell and the flow of wheat from Egypt was cut off. Widely known as astute merchants,[xxx] the Phoenicians would naturally have included wheat shipments in their sea trade at this time. 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